6 These rates are not only due to racial and gender discrimination, but are also a result of Latinx cultural values such familisimo and marianismo7. Familisimo, although it emphasizes a strong family unit, can inhibit Latina teenagers from embracing their own unique independent identity8. Marianismo, rooted in Catholicism’s admiration of the Virgin Mary, is the belief that women must be pure, self sacrificing, pleasant, nurturing and demure9. Teenage Latinas are often met with pressure to meet these cultural standards, and this pressure can lead to development of anxiety and depression. These cultural factors do not favor reaching out for mental health assistance, making addressing the mental health concerns difficult.
Enumerators were instructed to no longer use the “Mulatto” classification. Instead, they were given special instructions for reporting the race of interracial persons. A person with both white and black ancestry (termed “blood”) was to be recorded as “Negro,” no matter the fraction of that lineage (the “one-drop rule”). A person of mixed black and American Indian ancestry was also to be recorded as “Neg” (for “Negro”) unless he was considered to be “predominantly” American Indian and accepted as such within the community. A person with both white and American Indian ancestry was to be recorded as an Indian, unless his American Indian ancestry was small, and he was accepted as white within the community.
Because of the historical and contemporary struggles of Chicanas/os in the colonial education system, many doubt its potential for transformative change; as Rodolfo Acuña states, “revolutions are made in the streets, not on college campuses.” After it was reclaimed, Chicano/a identity became a celebration of being non-white and non-European and worked against the state-sanctioned census categories of “Whites with Spanish Surnames,” originally promulgated on the 1950 U.S. census, and “Mexican-American,” which Chicanas/os felt encouraged assimilation into European American society. Chicanos/as asserted ethnic pride during a time when Mexican assimilation into whiteness was being actively promoted by the U.S. government in order to “serve Anglo self-interest,” who tried to claim Chicano/as were white in order to deny racism against them, as noted by Ian Haney López.
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48.5% of the inhabitants of Los Angeles, California are of Hispanic origin. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanics overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States.
According to the 2011 Federal Bureau of Investigation Hate Crimes Statistics Report, 56.9% of the 939 victims of crimes motivated by a bias toward the victims’ ethnicity or national origin were directed at Hispanics. In California, the state with the largest Mexican American population, the number of hate crimes committed against Latinos almost doubled from 2003 to 2007. In 2011, hate crimes against Hispanics declined 31% in the United States and 43% in California.
Oftentimes, it is threats of deportation that influence Latina women to keep silent about their situation. These wage gaps in the workforce affect Latinas at every socioeconomic status, not just the working class. Latina women are the most likely group to be paid at or below the minimum wage, with 5.7% of wage and salary workers earning this amount. Of women in the workforce with advanced degrees (master’s, professional, and doctoral degrees), Latinas earn the lowest median weekly earnings of all racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
Because these findings are based on a community-based sample of Latina women, future research is needed to investigate if these types of attributions persist among clinical samples of substance abusing or dependent Latina adults. Perhaps such attributions influence their treatment choice, therapy processes, and treatment outcomes? For instance, a potential congruence between less acculturated, substance abusing adult Latinas’ spiritually and disease model based beliefs and 12-step models may suggest that self-help group attendance could be a culturally congruent treatment component for less acculturated Latina women. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether attributions about addiction in a community-based sample of predominantly immigrant Latina women are associated with socioeconomic and cultural factors, as well as substance use frequency and type. First, a factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of the UAS-3AC items was explained by four underlying types of attributions about addiction.
- Both collective bargaining and banning salary history seek to balance information asymmetries that benefit employers.
- Similarly, banning salary history helps eliminate outright wage discrimination by preventing workers from carrying around lower wages as they change jobs.
- Because Hispanic women still face limited benefits in terms of the wage gap for getting a college education after graduating from high school, just encouraging higher education will not resolve the gender wage gap.
- Collective bargaining agreements also mimic pay transparency by clearly defining pay scales for different positions.26 As such, pay gaps are lower for union workers.
- If a worker is underpaid in one job, and their next job bases their new salary on previous salary, then workers who are more likely to face discriminatory pay at any given employment may face the cumulative effects of this discrimination throughout their careers.
However, due to the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in 1982, immigrants are allowed access to K-12 education. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin. Moreover, Latinos’ immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Latinos outperform their later generational counterparts. First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs.
Session 4 explored how experiences such as immigration, deportation, and acculturation can affect HIV risk among Latina women. The participants also engaged in role-playing activities that integrated these culturally appropriate themes and were designed to enhance women’s confidence in initiating safer sex conversations, negotiating safer sex, and refusing unsafe sexual encounters. The adapted curriculum was translated into Spanish by a translation services company and was reviewed, modified, back-translated into English, and finally approved by the study team. We then field-tested the adapted curriculum, and Latina community representatives reviewed it before implementation.
Thus, future HIV prevention trials would benefit from inclusion of a time-equivalent comparison condition that focuses on a topic other than HIV prevention but addresses a relevant and important health issue for Latina women. The efficacy of AMIGAS may also be partly attributable to inclusion of Latina women and integration of Latina cultural values in all facets of the study, from the conceptualization, adaptation, and implementation of the intervention to the recruitment and retention of participants and study evaluation. The adaptation process remained faithful to the underlying theories and core elements of the original SiSTA intervention. The Latina health educators implemented the AMIGAS curriculum with remarkable fidelity. Of all the activities outlined in the curriculum, 98% were independently rated as having been correctly implemented.
Post-9/11, Chicana/o consciousness became increasingly transnational, informed by and expanding upon earlier traditions of anti-imperialism and Third World solidarity in the Chicano Movement. In the 2010s, there was a resurgence of Chicana/o/x and Xicana/o/x identity, centered on ethnic pride, Indigenous consciousness, cultural expression, defense of immigrants, and the rights of women and queer Latino people; some even referred to it as a ‘renaissance’. Recently, some have argued that Xicana/o/x identity is elastic enough to include people beyond those of Mexican origin, indicating a continued emphasis on deconstructing borders and emphasizing transnationality. It is difficult to know the exact number of Latino Americans self-identifying as Mestizo, in part because “Mestizo” is not an official racial category in the Census.
Political activist César Chávez and novelist José Antonio Villarreal are famous Chicanos. Over half of the Hispanic population is concentrated in the Southwest region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. California and Texas have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Hispanics in the United States. The Northeast region is dominated by Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans, having the highest concentrations of both in the country.
Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as “school offerings, teacher quality, http://st-arhangeli.com/surprising-details-about-cuban-girl-exposed/ curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate.” In the case of Latinos, the poverty rate for Hispanic children in 2004 was 28.6 percent.
Age and family structure play important roles in women’s labor force participation, as well as employment opportunities. In addition to finding that unexplained wage gap for Hispanic women is greater than the aggregation of the absolute ethnic and gender effects, we also identify particular groups of Hispanic women at an even greater disadvantage. ACNN studyconducted the same year, however, found that 53% of Latinas get pregnant in their teens, about twice the national average. This number, while not reflecting the hypersexuality of Latina teens, can be attributed to intersecting social issues of gender, race, class, immigrant status and education. The 1940 census was the first to include separate population and housing questionnaires.