straight down the line

Latina Equal Pay Day 2020

During the next 25 years, 100,000 Chinese arrived to Peru, hired in eight-year contracts from Macao, Hong Kong, Canton, and Fujian, including some Sangley people. They were hired for sugar cane fields, rice fields, extracting guano and constructing the railroads in the Andes in semi-slavery working conditions. Afro-Peruvians, constitute a 3.6% of the population, Peru as a Spanish colony in the Conquista has a history of slave trading, from Ghana, Angola, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, and Madagascar. During the colonial period to perform labor work in sugar cane, cotton fields and vineyards, very few of them in gold mines in Cuzco.

The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language.

Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Gualdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively. Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. El Paso was founded in 1659, San Antonio in 1691, Laredo, Texas in 1755, San Diego in 1769, San Francisco in 1776, San Jose, California in 1777, New Iberia, Louisiana in 1779, and Los Angeles in 1781. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language well before the United States was created.

For a more precise analysis on the nationality and identity of Mexico, see Mexican nationality law. The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans (Princeton University Press; 2013) argues for dropping the race question from the census. The Census Bureau warns that data on race in 2000 census are not directly comparable to those collected in previous censuses. Many residents of the United States consider race and ethnicity to be the same.

Mexico protested, and Roosevelt decided to circumvent the decision and make sure the federal government treated Hispanics as white. The State Department, the Census Bureau, the Labor Department, and other government agencies therefore made sure to uniformly classify people of Mexican descent as white. This policy encouraged the League of United Latin American Citizens in its quest to minimize discrimination by asserting their whiteness.

Although a minimum wage hike wouldn’t fully solve the problem, it is a step in the right direction. NWLC reports that Latinas who work full-time, year-round jobs and also have a bachelor’s degree generally only earn about $52,037 per year. A White, non-Hispanic man with only an associate’s degree, on the other hand, generally makes $54,620. This comparison offers a bleak perspective of the position that Latina women are in – that despite having more education, some Latina women still earn lower wages and must work longer to make the same amount of money. This has disastrous consequences for the Latino community by denying them monetary resources that would ultimately benefit them.

The 1950 census questionnaire removed the word “color” from the racial question, and also removed Hindu and Korean from the race choices. President Franklin D. Roosevelt promoted a “good neighbor” policy that sought better relations with Mexico. In 1935, a federal judge ruled that three Mexican immigrants were ineligible for citizenship because they were not white, as required by federal law.

Among those 24% who have a preference for a pan-ethnic label, “‘Hispanic’ is preferred over ‘Latino’ by more than a two-to-one margin—33% versus 14%.” 21% prefer to be referred to simply as “Americans.” The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. The modern term to identify Portuguese and Spanish territories under a single nomenclature is “Iberian”, and the one to refer to cultures derived from both countries in the Americas is “Iberian-American”. These designations can be mutually recognized by people in Portugal and Brazil, unlike “Hispanic”, which is totally void of any self-identification in those countries, and quite to the contrary, serves the purpose of marking a clear distinction in relation to neighboring countries’ culture.

See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music. Flamenco is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in Andalusia. Spanish ballads “romances” can be traced in Argentina as “milongas”, same structure but different scenarios.

This interactive workshop covers key components of campaign fundraising, including special emphasis on understanding why people give and the in-person “ask”. Diana took the LAA’s “Planifica tu Negocio” entrepreneurship course for Latina immigrants and she never looked back. Today she has an online business where she sells hand-crafted jewelry and accessories inspired by indigenous people in Colombia who live in the Putumayo region of the Amazon rainforest and other rural areas. It’s a space where they feel a sense of belonging, where they connect with other women who’ve had similar experiences“ Cucalon says. Since the program was launched in 2014, hundreds of women have taken our courses tailored to Latina entrepreneurs.

Major cities include Lima, home to over 9.5 million people, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Huancayo, Cusco and Pucallpa, all of which reported more than 250,000 inhabitants.The largest expatriate Peruvian communities are in the United States , South America , Europe , Japan, Australia and Canada. Hispanic or Latino” refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though Latin music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre.

Migration History

One of the most untouchable unmixed African population is still today El Carmen en Chincha Alta Ica, Peru. The city of Arequipa in the south of Peru displays the majority of Spanish descendants in the south. Cajamarca in the highlands, parts of San Martin in the Amazon Area; Also Oxapampa and Pozuzo were populated by German and Austrian settlers in the Andes. A considerable European population migrated to Peru, they came for oil, mining, fishing, sugar, cotton, guano, rubber, and other booming industries in the mid-1800.

And it’s the kind of step forward that we need, since current projections show that – if trends to close the Latina wage gap continue – they’ll have to wait 232 years for equal pay. White women are projected to wait 40 more years, and Black women are projected to wait another 108. Something that could help is a minimum wage increase, which would benefit a large amount of Latina workers. The Economic Policy Institute estimates that if the minimum wage were increased to $12 per hour by 2020 – a proposal introduced in Congress that lawmakers ultimately didn’t take up – then more than 35 million workers would receive a raise. The majority of those workers are women, 4.2 million are Latinas, and over 38 percent of Latinos who would benefit are parents.